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4
1496-1545

  • Then the ass will say, “One tether is enough for me”; (but) in sooth do not think (that such is the case), for those two are (result) from the action of that vile creature.
  • پس بگوید خر که یک بندم بست ** خود مدان کان دو ز فعل آن خسست
  • In exposition of the following Hadíth of Mustafá (Mohammed), on whom be peace: "Verily, the most High God created the angels and set reason in them, and He created the beasts and set lust in them, and He created the sons of Adam and set in them reason and lust; and he whose reason prevails over his lust is higher than the angels, and he whose lust prevails over his reason is lower than the beasts."
  • در تفسیر این حدیث مصطفی علیه‌السلام کی ان الله تعالی خلق الملائکة و رکب فیهم العقل و خلق البهائم و رکب فیها الشهوة و خلق بنی آدم و رکب فیهم العقل و الشهوة فمن غلب عقله شهوته فهو اعلی من الملائکة و من غلب شهوته عقله فهو ادنی من البهائم
  • It is related in the Hadíth that the majestical God created the creatures of the world (in) three kinds.
  • در حدیث آمد که یزدان مجید ** خلق عالم را سه گونه آفرید
  • One class (He made) entirely reason and knowledge and munificence; that is the angel: he knoweth naught but prostration in worship.
  • یک گره را جمله عقل و علم و جود ** آن فرشته‌ست او نداند جز سجود
  • In his original nature is no concupiscence and sensuality: he is absolute light, (he is) living through (his) love of God.
  • نیست اندر عنصرش حرص و هوا ** نور مطلق زنده از عشق خدا
  • Another class is devoid of knowledge, like the animal (which lives) in fatness from (eating) fodder. 1500
  • یک گروه دیگر از دانش تهی ** هم‌چو حیوان از علف در فربهی
  • It sees nothing but stable and fodder: it is heedless of (future) misery and glory (felicity).
  • او نبیند جز که اصطبل و علف ** از شقاوت غافلست و از شرف
  • The third (class) is Adam's descendant and Man: half of him is of the angel and half of him is ass.
  • این سوم هست آدمی‌زاد و بشر ** نیم او ز افرشته و نیمیش خر
  • The ass-half, indeed, inclines to that which is low; the other half inclines to that which is rational.
  • نیم خر خود مایل سفلی بود ** نیم دیگر مایل عقلی بود
  • Those two classes (the angels and the beasts) are at rest from war and combat, while this Man is (engaged) in torment (painful struggle) with two adversaries.
  • آن دو قوم آسوده از جنگ و حراب ** وین بشر با دو مخالف در عذاب
  • And, moreover, this (race of) Man, through probation, has been divided: they (all) are of human shape, but (in truth) they have become three communities (families). 1505
  • وین بشر هم ز امتحان قسمت شدند ** آدمی شکلند و سه امت شدند
  • One party have become submerged absolutely and, like Jesus, have attained unto the (nature of the) angel.
  • یک گره مستغرق مطلق شدست ** هم‌چو عیسی با ملک ملحق شدست
  • The form (of such a one is that of) Adam, but the reality is Gabriel: he has been delivered from anger and sensual passion and (vain) disputation.
  • نقش آدم لیک معنی جبرئیل ** رسته از خشم و هوا و قال و قیل
  • He has been delivered from discipline and asceticism and self-mortification: you would say he was not even born of a child of Adam.
  • از ریاضت رسته وز زهد و جهاد ** گوییا از آدمی او خود نزاد
  • The second sort have attained unto (the nature of) asses: they have become pure anger and absolute lust.
  • قسم دیگر با خران ملحق شدند ** خشم محض و شهوت مطلق شدند
  • The qualities of Gabriel were in them and departed: that house was (too) narrow, and those qualities (too) grand. 1510
  • وصف جبریلی دریشان بود رفت ** تنگ بود آن خانه و آن وصف زفت
  • The person who is deprived of (the vital) spirit becomes dead: when his spirit is deprived of those (angelic qualities), he becomes an ass,
  • مرده گردد شخص کو بی‌جان شود ** خر شود چون جان او بی‌آن شود
  • Because the spirit that hath not those (qualities) is vile: this word is true, and the (perfect) Súfí has said (it).
  • زانک جانی کان ندارد هست پست ** این سخن حقست و صوفی گفته است
  • He (the man of animal nature) suffers more anxiety than the beasts, (for) he practises subtle arts in the world.
  • او ز حیوانها فزون‌تر جان کند ** در جهان باریک کاریها کند
  • The cunning and imposture which he knows how to spin— that (cunning) is not produced by any other animal.
  • مکر و تلبیسی که او داند تنید ** آن ز حیوان دیگر ناید پدید
  • To weave gold-embroidered robes, to win pearls from the bottom of the sea, 1515
  • جامه‌های زرکشی را بافتن ** درها از قعر دریا یافتن
  • The fine artifices of geometry or astronomy, and the science of medicine and philosophy—
  • خرده‌کاریهای علم هندسه ** یا نجوم و علم طب و فلسفه
  • Which are connected only with this world and have no way (of mounting) up to the Seventh Heaven—
  • که تعلق با همین دنیاستش ** ره به هفتم آسمان بر نیستش
  • All this is the science of building the (worldly) stable which is the pillar (basis) of the existence of (persons like) the ox and the camel.
  • این همه علم بنای آخرست ** که عماد بود گاو و اشترست
  • For the sake of preserving the animal for a few days, these crazy fools have given to those (arts and sciences) the name of “mysteries.”
  • بهر استبقای حیوان چند روز ** نام آن کردند این گیجان رموز
  • The knowledge of the Way to God and the knowledge of its (final) stage—that only the owner of the heart knows, or (you may say) his heart (itself). 1520
  • علم راه حق و علم منزلش ** صاحب دل داند آن را با دلش
  • He (God), then, created in this composite fashion the goodly animal and made him familiar with knowledge.
  • پس درین ترکیب حیوان لطیف ** آفرید و کرد با دانش الیف
  • That (bestial) class (of men) He named “like the cattle,” for where is the resemblance between waking and sleep?
  • نام کالانعام کرد آن قوم را ** زانک نسبت کو بیقظه نوم را
  • The animal spirit hath naught but sleep (ignorance): the (bestial) class of men possess inverted sense-perceptions.
  • روح حیوانی ندارد غیر نوم ** حسهای منعکس دارند قوم
  • (When) waking comes, the animal sleep is no more, and he (the enlightened man) reads the (former) inversion of his senses from the tablet (of his clairvoyant consciousness)—
  • یقظه آمد نوم حیوانی نماند ** انعکاس حس خود از لوح خواند
  • Like the sense-perceptions of one whom sleep has seized: when he awakes, the inverted quality (of his sense-perceptions whilst he was dreaming) becomes apparent. 1525
  • هم‌چو حس آنک خواب او را ربود ** چون شد او بیدار عکسیت نمود
  • Necessarily, he (the bestial man) is the lowest of the low. Take leave of him: I love not them that sink.
  • لاجرم اسفل بود از سافلین ** ترک او کن لا احب الافلین
  • In exposition of the following Verse: "and as for those in whose hearts is a disease, it (each new Súra of the Qur’án) added unto their uncleanness (wicked unbelief)"; and of His Word: "thereby He letteth many be led astray, and thereby He letteth many be guided aright."
  • در تفسیر این آیت کی و اما الذین فی قلوبهم مرض فزادتهم رجسا و قوله یضل به کثیرا و یهدی به کثیرا
  • (The bestial man is the lowest of the low) because he possessed the capacity for transforming himself and striving (to escape) from lowness, but (afterwards) lost it.
  • زانک استعداد تبدیل و نبرد ** بودش از پستی و آن را فوت کرد
  • Again, since the animal does not possess (that) capacity, its excusability (for remaining) in the bestial state is a thing (most) evident.
  • باز حیوان را چو استعداد نیست ** عذر او اندر بهیمی روشنیست
  • When the capacity, which is the guide (to salvation), is gone from him, every nutriment that he eats is the brain of an ass.
  • زو چو استعداد شد کان رهبرست ** هر غذایی کو خورد مغز خرست
  • If he eats anacardium, it becomes (acts upon him as) opium: his apoplexy and dementia are increased. 1530
  • گر بلادر خورد او افیون شود ** سکته و بی‌عقلیش افزون شود
  • There remains another sort (of men: they are engaged) in warfare: (they are) half animal, half (spiritually) alive and endowed with good guidance.
  • ماند یک قسم دگر اندر جهاد ** نیم حیوان نیم حی با رشاد
  • Day and night in strife and mutual struggle, his (such a one's) last (state) battles with his first.
  • روز و شب در جنگ و اندر کش‌مکش ** کرده چالیش آخرش با اولش
  • The battle of the reason against the flesh is like the contention of Majnún with his she camel: Majnún's inclination is towards the noble woman (Laylá), while the she camel's inclination is (to go) back towards her foal, as Majnún said (in verse): "My she-camel's love is behind me, while my love is in front of me; and verily I and she are discordant."
  • چالیش عقل با نفس هم چون تنازع مجنون با ناقه میل مجنون سوی حره میل ناقه واپس سوی کره چنانک گفت مجنون هوا ناقتی خلفی و قدامی الهوی و انی و ایاها لمختلفان
  • Assuredly they (the reason and the flesh) are like Majnún and his she-camel: that one is pulling forward and this one backward in (mutual) enmity.
  • هم‌چو مجنون‌اند و چون ناقه‌ش یقین ** می‌کشد آن پیش و این واپس به کین
  • Majnún's desire is speeding to the presence of that (beloved) Laylá; the she camel's desire is running back after her foal.
  • میل مجنون پیش آن لیلی روان ** میل ناقه پس پی کره دوان
  • If Majnún forgot himself for one moment, the she-camel would turn and go back. 1535
  • یک دم ار مجنون ز خود غافل بدی ** ناقه گردیدی و واپس آمدی
  • Since his body was full of love and passion, he had no resource but to become beside himself.
  • عشق و سودا چونک پر بودش بدن ** می‌نبودش چاره از بی‌خود شدن
  • That which is regardful was (ever) reason: passion for Laylá carried (his) reason away.
  • آنک او باشد مراقب عقل بود ** عقل را سودای لیلی در ربود
  • But the she-camel was very regardful and alert: whenever she saw her toggle slack
  • لیک ناقه بس مراقب بود و چست ** چون بدیدی او مهار خویش سست
  • She would at once perceive that he had become heedless and dazed, and would turn her face back to the foal without delay.
  • فهم کردی زو که غافل گشت و دنگ ** رو سپس کردی به کره بی‌درنگ
  • When he came to himself again, he would see on the spot that she had gone back many leagues. 1540
  • چون به خود باز آمدی دیدی ز جا ** کو سپس رفتست بس فرسنگها
  • In these conditions Majnún remained going to and fro for years on a three days' journey.
  • در سه روزه ره بدین احوالها ** ماند مجنون در تردد سالها
  • He said, “O camel, since we both are lovers, therefore we two contraries are unsuitable fellow-travellers.
  • گفت ای ناقه چو هر دو عاشقیم ** ما دو ضد پس همره نالایقیم
  • Thy affection and toggle (propensity) are not in accord with me: it behoves (me) to choose parting from thy companionship.”
  • نیستت بر وفق من مهر و مهار ** کرد باید از تو صحبت اختیار
  • These two fellow-travellers (the reason and the flesh) are brigands waylaying each other: lost is the spirit that does not dismount from the body.
  • این دو همره یکدگر را راه‌زن ** گمره آن جان کو فرو ناید ز تن
  • The spirit, because of separation from the highest Heaven, is in a (great) want; the body, on account of passion for the thorn-shrub (of sensual pleasure), is like a she-camel. 1545
  • جان ز هجر عرش اندر فاقه‌ای ** تن ز عشق خاربن چون ناقه‌ای